Worth knowing about wooden floors
Do you dream of a beautiful wooden floor, this guide will give you answers to the most important questions, so you can choose exactly the right wood floor for you and your home - and get lots of tips and tricks on how to maintain it best.
Wood floors provide a good indoor climate, are comfortable to move on and heat to touch. Nature ensures that every wooden floor is unique with its own color variations and structures. The wood flooring properties depend on the nature of the wood and on the design and surface of the floor.
With this guide in hand, you can more easily assess the difference between the different floors so you end up getting a wooden floor that meets all your expectations of appearance, function and durability.
Is there a difference between wooden floors?
Yes, and today there are so many different qualities, structures and colors that you can always find one that suits your needs. As a starting point, wooden floors can be either solid or lamellar. Both types can be used for both plank and parquet floors.
The solid wooden floor
Solid floors are very robust, especially hardwood floors, and they can withstand abrasion several times. The individual board can consist of one piece of wood (planks) or of glued rods (parquet boards).
The lamellar wooden floor
A lamellar floor usually consists of three layers and is very dimensionally stable due to its construction. At the top there is a layer of the desired wood species of 2.56 mm, in the middle a core of wooden board or transverse wood and at the bottom a back of veneer. It is the thickness of the top layer that determines how many times you can clear it.
Floors of wide boards are called plank floors. They are massive ones made of one piece of wood, like traditional, narrower floorboards. If the lamellae are called they are often called lamellae and the upper layer consists of a piece of veneer.
Parquet flooring usually refers to parquet board floors. Solid parquet boards consist of hardwood parquet sticks glued together to boards. Laminated parquet boards are called the parquet park. Here, the top layers of veneer pieces are laid in the same way as in solid parquet boards.
A parquet floor can also be of the parquet floor and then consists of loose parquet sticks that are stitched, screwed or glued to a subfloor, often in patterns. The rods are usually massive, but are now also available lamellar. Solid parquet rods can also be called the ridge park made of thin, vertical slats.
Bamboo is sometimes used instead of wood in the parquet park and the perimeter park. They are used as similar slat and high-pitched wooden floors.
Veneer floors denote wooden boards coated with a thin layer of wood veneer. They are not further treated.
The surface of laminate flooring consists of plastic with a picture of wood and is therefore not a wooden floor. They are not further treated.
Floors can be laid so that they are supported on joists or beams, or directly on the substrate, either swimming or glued.
Plank floors are usually laid on joists or beams, ie nailed or screwed. Parquet boards are often used in the same way. The boards must be at least 20 mm thick when laid on joists. Floors laid on beams must have documented strength for point load, see page 18.
Parquet boards and plank floors can be laid floating on an intermediate layer, laid out on concrete or a subfloor of e.g. chipboard. They are often assembled with hangers on the back, but can also be glued in ferrules and grooves along all sides. The parquet park and lamella board can be laid in the same way, but can also have a click system integrated.
In addition to the stake park, both planks and parquet boards can be glued to the subfloor ('full adhesive'), provided the supplier recommends it. Full adhesion can be an advantage in larger rooms, in order to limit moisture movements, but the floor can then not be reused or redeployed.
Which tree species is best?
Wooden floors are made from many different needles and hardwood species. In principle, both are equally applicable to floors, but there are some crucial differences in the color and hardness of the wood that are important for maintenance, cleaning and durability.
Needlewood or hardwood?
Generally, coniferous floors are softer than hardwood floors. For floors of eg. pine or douglas means that there will be easier pressure marks after eg. blows and stiletto heels. For lye and soap-washed floors, smaller marks can be leveled out with time after washing.
Hardwood floors of e.g. Oak, ash or beech are harder tree species and are therefore often referred to as hardwood floors. They have a significantly better wear resistance and are more pressure-resistant than the pinewood floors.
If you choose a floor of a dark tropical wood species, you get even higher hardness and durability. They are typically oiled because these tree species themselves are oily. It also highlights the color and glow of the tree.
Does a wood floor change?
Over time, there is a natural change in the appearance of the wood. The size of the changes in color shades depends on the impact the floor is exposed to.
Influence of light
Sun and light influences are one of the major reasons why the color shades in the wood change. For example, bright maple and ash floors will become more yellowish over time. The same goes for lighthouse and douglas, where the guy can even get a brownish tone. If you have carpets, shelves or other large furniture to stand on the floor, they shade the light so that light areas can come down below the rest of the floor if you do not have the opportunity to move them regularly. Wear and lack of cleaning can also affect the appearance of the surface so that it becomes more sad to look at.
How to keep the color
Normal paint and oil treatments are relatively color neutral, but will always emphasize the structure of the wood. With time, most bright, varnished wood species get a deeper hue - though with difference - as ash flooring smoothes out color-wise when, for example. blankets are moved. If the color tone on the floor with time is too dark and the floor is worn, it can usually pay off to grind and repaint it.
White pigmented lacquer and oil treatments largely retain the color of the floor when the surface treatment is maintained. Oil-treated floors must always be completely clean before oiling, otherwise dirt is distributed in the oil and the floor quickly darkens.
If the oil-treated floor is too dark, it can be cleaned and re-oiled. If you have a lye-treated floor, the whitish surface can be kept clean by washing it with white-pigmented soap.
Which surface treatment is best?
There are many different methods and methods for surface treatment on the market. What works best depends on your expectations of how the floor should look, how long it should last, and how much time you want to spend on maintenance.
Floor surface lays on the floor and protects the tree. This increases the abrasion resistance as it is primarily the paint that is worn. Virtually all floor types and wood species - also tropical wood flooring - can be painted. Modern floor tiles are environmentally friendly and scratch and durable, and in particular, factory lacquers are very durable. In an ordinary home, the flooring can last for many years, depending on whether you change shoes and fit on the floor, or have a dog and go with shoes and boots inside etc. You should always re-polish the floor before the paint is worn - and preferably in good time before wear and tear on the surface. In particular, colored floors should be re-treated in time so as not to occur through wear and damage to the underlying thin color layer. Slotted lacquered floors should always be abraded to clean wood before being re-treated.
Oil-treated floors must be kept saturated with oil - and most often where you go and stay a lot. On the other hand, they will continue to be dirt-repellent and easy to hold. The oil draws in the wood surface and protects against moisture and dirt, but the opposite lacquer is the wooden floor you are wearing. Therefore, hard heavy wood species are better suited for oil treatment than soft coniferous floors, especially where there is a lot of trafficking on the floor. It is typically the corridors of living rooms, kitchens and hallways that must be regularly re-treated with oil. On the other hand, areas under furniture and along walls do not become worn in the same way and usually do not need to be re-oiled more than once a year. If you notice scratches or marks on the surface, you can remove them by sanding lightly and giving oil, which is not possible with a painted floor.
Soap and soap treatment
- Do you want a light coniferous floor of eg. pine or douglas, you can advantageously choose to lute it first to maintain the bright color. Lud is always a pretreatment as possible. can be protected with an oil treatment before the soap wash. It is easy and easy to treat your floor with soap - just do it often so that the soap treatment is maintained and not worn. You should wash it as needed and often to preserve the appearance and durability of the floor - depending on how dirty it becomes. Hardwood floors, e.g. of ash and beech, can also be treated and soaped, but remember that it is a special treatment, ask a specialist. Tropical hardwood floors are not suitable for ludel or soap treatment, but should instead be oiled.
Why are openings coming?
Openings between the boards cannot be avoided, as wood is a living and natural material that reacts to the humidity in the air. In the winter, when the indoor air is dry, the tree contracts, especially across and when the air becomes more humid over the summer, the tree expands again.
Small or large openings
How much a wooden floor moves depends on how it is made. Slat floors are stable, and respond little to changes in air humidity because there are transverse layers in the middle. Therefore, they can be laid tight, and there are almost no openings between lamella boards during the year. For solid floors of parquet boards or planks, the width of the openings will change over the year. The wider the boards, the bigger the change. The changes will be most evenly distributed between parquet boards, as they consist of many pieces of wood, and therefore are more uniform than planks.
Get control of the indoor climate
When the wood reacts to the humidity in the air, your indoor climate plays an important role in how large joints come in your wood floor. If you have heat in the floor, the wooden floor becomes more dry and thus slightly larger cracks between the boards than if you instead have radiators. Pay particular attention to the heat input to the floor heating, as too high a temperature can cause damage to the floor.
Heat recovery plants can make the indoor air very dry in the winter, which affects the moisture in wooden floors.
Is it normal for wooden floors to creak?
Wooden floors that have been laid correctly will not normally creak. But that does not mean that a wooden floor is completely without sounds. There may be sounds every time you go to a particular place on the floor - it is often creaking - and when you step on a floor that has not been used for some hours or days.
The latter are called voltage sounds in the subject language. They come only occasionally and are not triggered at any particular location on the floor. They are therefore not entirely avoidable. If your new floor creaks every time you go, talk to your floor planner about it. When laying new floors on old storey beams, it can not always be avoided that creaking sounds can arise from the floor or the underlying construction due to, among other things. uneven resilience in the beams.
Why does the wooden floor squeak?
If your wooden floor always creases when you walk on it, it may be due to conditions in the floor structure. It may be a support underneath a loose bed floor, a seam that does not sit firmly or a cavity (lukewarm) under a board that causes creases and nicks in the board to creak. If necessary, get a carpenter or floor covering to help you find the cause and remove the creaking noise. There will also be a risk of creaking sounds from click floors that are not fitted correctly or which are laid on a too soft surface that gives too much after. Therefore, choose a base recommended by the floor supplier. Older floors can also begin to creak because the underlying joists or beams emerge. If the creaking sounds are very annoying, it may be necessary to change the floor.
Can I combine underfloor heating and wooden floors?
It has become very popular to install floor heating in its house - new as old - and wooden floors are no obstacle. Most suppliers of wood flooring ensure that their products are suitable for underfloor heating, if only the temperature is controlled. In new houses that are dimensioned for floor heating, it usually works fine. Older houses are rarely isolated so well that they can only be heated with floor heating. If you have an older house and you want to get floor heating, it may be a good idea to get an energy consultant to count on the heating requirement.
Do not overheat the heat
If you press your heating system in cold winters to more than 27 degrees in surface temperature on the wooden floor and under carpets, there is a considerable risk of damaging the floor. It can cause large permanent joints between the floorboards, the boards can settle or the rods in lamella floors can in the worst case loosen. Consult your plumbing supplier so that he can ensure that the flow temperature in the heating hoses is low enough to keep the surface temperature of the wooden floor below 25-27 degrees. This requires that the flow temperature is shunted. This is not always the case in existing floor heating systems. Adhering to the few playing rules for wood floors and underfloor heating, both work fine and you get a warm, comfortable and good climate.
How do I clean my wooden floor?
Wood floors are easy to keep clean, but cleaning and care depends entirely on the surface treatment. Lacquered and oiled floors are cleaned with a hard-wrung cloth, as too much water can damage the floor, while lye and soap-treated floors must be washed to make the soap pad work.
Generally, you should clean your wooden floor once every two weeks - of course, depending on how dirty it is. Always clean in the longitudinal direction of the floor. Follow the supplier's maintenance instructions and use the recommended cleaning agents and methods to keep the floor clean.
Here's how you do it:
- Vacuum the floor to remove dirt and sand that can scratch the paint surface.
- Wipe the floor with a damp microfibre pad rinsed in clean warm water. If there is stuck dirt, you can instead use a weak solution of salmon soap or a neutral detergent.
- Finally wipe the floor with a microfiber mop in clean warm water. Do not use kitchen cleaners and bath cleaners, as they may damage the surface, or soap chips and brown soap that form film and blur the surface.
Oiled floors (hardening oil)
- Vacuum the floor to remove dirt and sand that can scratch the surface.
- Wipe the floor with a hard-wrung cloth in clean warm water. If there is stuck dirt, you can use natural soap or the trees in a mild solution.
- Finally wipe the floor with a wrung cloth in clean warm water.
Floor and soap-treated floors
- Vacuum the floor to remove dirt and sand that can scratch the surface.
- Wash the floor with natural soap (with or without white pigments).
- Wipe the floor with a clean wrinkled cloth or mop to remove excess soapy water so that the floor quickly becomes dry again. Avoid using ordinary, old-fashioned floor mops as they often add too much water and do not remove water effectively again.
How do I maintain my wooden floor?
It is worth paying attention to its wooden floor. The cleaning becomes easier and the floor stays beautiful for many years. Over time, some surfaces may look a little dull, but there is advice for that. It is especially in the kitchen, within the outer doors and in corridors, that the floors wear most. Here it is worthwhile to watch the floors and maintain them in time.
Start with these three tips
- Place a feeding rack outside the front door and a mat inside.
- Place felt pieces under chairs and driving plates under office chairs.
- Vacuum the floor frequently so that dirt and sand do not wear and scratch the surface.
If your painted floor has got scratches or lost a bit of gloss, you can freshen up the surface with a paint care product. Clean the floor with a wood cleaning product for floors before treating it.
If the surface starts to wear out, you should repaint your floor before it is really worn through. Clean, clean, grind and re-polish. Follow the supplier's instructions for refinishing. However, some strong varnishes are unsuitable for repainting and require abrasion for clean wood.
Oiled floors (hardening oil)
Freshen up your oiled floor with care oil as needed, especially in the walkways, and at least once a year. So you ensure that the oil treatment seals the surface against moisture and dirt.
Wash the floor with the trees' wood floors before treatment so the floor is completely clean - otherwise you will get dirt in the new oil, which can discolor your floor.
You have to do it so often that the oil treatment does not get worn through. Otherwise you have to clear the floor and oil it from the bottom again.
Floor and soap-treated floors
When the surface begins to look a little sad, dried out or dirty, it is typically a sign that you wash it too rarely in relation to the load on the floor. You can rebuild the surface with an extra thorough soap - but first wash the floor with the tree's for wooden floors, so that the floor is completely clean before reprocessing with soap.
If the surface is very well worn and worn, the floor should be abraded down to clean wood before treating it again with lye and soap.
Can wood floors be abraded?
Most wood floors can be abraded to clean wood, but it is best to keep the floor clean so you do not need to grind it off. However, injuries from abrasion and shock can make it necessary, but should be abolished as little as possible. How many times it is possible to grind depends on the product - whether you have a lamellar floor, or a solid wood floor.
Floors that have previously been sanded or have a special structure or surface treatment can limit the possibilities or make them completely unsuitable for abrasion. Therefore, you should examine the wooden floor before it needs to be abraded, or best leave it to a professional floor grinder. Floors that are lacquered with a so-called antiscratch surface can be difficult to abrade. It is a factory treatment, so seek advice from your floor supplier.
Floors that are unsuitable for abrasion
- Floors with a residual wear layer less than 2 mm
- Floors that are too dry or too moist
- Floors with loose slats or unstable surfaces
- Laminate floors and veneer floors
Are there quality requirements for hardwood floors?
There is a whole set of European standards with requirements that wooden floors must adhere to. And often the manufacturer even has even stricter requirements for its products. They appear from the specifications for the individual floor and are often located on the manufacturer's website. Wooden floors must be CE marked in accordance with the standard EN 14342. Note that the CE marking is a declaration of the properties of the floor product, not a quality mark.
Installation and execution requirements
In addition to the CE marking, the EU also requires that a user manual for laying and maintenance be included. It is therefore primarily the supplier's installation and maintenance instructions that apply to the individual product.
If it is missing, there is a whole set of industry standards that apply, and most floor suppliers follow these standards, unless the specific product has specific characteristics.
Wooden floors that have to be laid on the joists (load-bearing floor) must be tested for ease and the load-bearing capacity of point load must be stated in the CE marking. Which span of the floor can be used for should appear in the installation guide.