Laminate floors are made up of 3 layers:
- Surface of thin fiber materials impregnated with different types of resin. During high pressure and hot pressing, the resin cures to various types of laminate called HPL (high pressure laminate), CPL (continuous laminate). HPL and CPL are bonded to a core material, which is usually a wood-based sheet. Alternatively, the resin-impregnated layers may be pressed directly onto the core material, such as DPL (directly pressed laminate).
- The core is usually a wood-based plate, eg chipboard, HDF or MDF plate.
- "Contrasting" / balancing the back, eg with HPL, CPL-impregnated paper or veneer.
Laminate flooring is used in homes, offices, shops and the like. room. The applications are described in the section on Properties and classification
Laminate floors are supplied as boards with ferries and grooves on all sides or with a ferry and groove locking system (click system), which eliminates the need for gluing in ferrules and grooves.
Laminate boards are available in thicknesses from 6 to 12 mm and are laid as a floating floor.
Laminate floors are supplied with smooth or embossed surface and with different surface colors and patterns including imitations of wood.
The laminate surface is strong and easy to clean and requires no surface treatment.
Laminate floors are usually not suitable for rooms with water impact.
If laminate floors are to be used in conjunction with floor heating, this must be done in accordance with the supplier's instructions.
If office chairs with wheels on laminate floors are used, the wheel type must be as stated in DS / EN 425: 2002, ie. with a soft tread.
If laminate floors are to be used as floor covering in escape routes and other areas with requirements for fire and smoke development, they must have documentation to meet the European fire class Dfl-s1 in accordance with DS / EN 13501-1 (class G floor covering).
For laminate floors, a floor industry's material guarantee can be provided under the conditions described on the floor industry's website , including that the supplier has approved the scope of application. Please refer to the provisions for issuing the floor industry's material guarantee .
Laminate floors usually do not contribute to improving the air sound insulation in a room. The air sound insulation is determined primarily by the tire construction and by the flank transmission between the rooms.
Laminate floors, on the other hand, have an impact on the sound level in the surrounding space and on the drum sound in the room. The step and drum sound levels from laminate floors are improved if the floor is laid on an intermediate layer of foam, foam plastic or the like. In addition, laminate boards are available, which are factory-equipped with a noise-reducing surface, which increases the walking comfort and significantly lowers the step and drum sound level.
Laminate floors must be CE marked. The harmonized standard DS / EN 14041, which underlies the CE marking, applies to production and use in Europe. It is the manufacturer or the dealer who imports the laminate floors responsible for the CE marking.
The properties required are stated in Annex ZA in DS / EN 14041:
- Response to fire
- Content of pentachlorophenol (PCP)
- Release of formaldehyde
- water resistance
- Antistatic properties
- Thermal Conductivity
- Durability of reaction to fire
As a supplement to the standard, national requirements may be prepared to the extent necessary to comply with building legislation.
CE marking is not a quality mark but a harmonized standard sheet that acts as the laminate floor travel pass within the European community.
| XX.XX A / S |
| DS / EN 14041 |
Laminate floor for use in buildings
| 7.0 mm |
| Manufacturer's name and / or logo |
Year of affixing the CE mark
| Reference to the harmonized standard |
| Total Thickness |
| Usage classes according to DS / EN 13329 |
| Additional features |
Figure 2. Example of how the CE marking can be used in a product specification.
Properties and classification
Laminate floors, which are EN-rated according to DS / EN 13329, must be able to meet specific requirements for a number of properties.
The properties are divided into general requirements that all products must meet, eg tolerances for thickness, swelling, length, width and flatness of boards.
The classification takes place by:
- Abrasion resistance.
- Impact resistance.
- Resistance to impression marks.
- Color fastness to artificial light.
- Resistance to stains and burn marks from cigarettes.
- The effect of furniture legs and office chair wheels.
The classification takes place according to the application areas housing and occupation, each subdivided into three classes, namely moderate, normal and high.
In addition to the properties included in the classification, there will often be a need to set requirements for other properties depending on the actual application. These properties are included in the GSO's additional properties, which include for laminate flooring:
| Slip || BGR 181 |
| Suitability in connection with underfloor heating || DIN 52612 |
| Suitable for fire || DS / EN 13501-1 |
S1 D fl (Class G)
| impact sound deadening || DS / EN |
| IMO approved |
| IMO Res. A653 (16) |
and MSC 61 (67)
Table 1. Supplementary properties.
Laminate floors are usually laid as a floating floor, which can move freely in relation to the supporting subfloor.
The floor surface is made coherent by gluing in the ferry and groove or by joining with a snap system, a locking fer and groove system, which provides a strong assembly of the laminate boards without the use of glue. From the factory, the click system can be treated to prevent moisture from entering the joints and thereby damaging the laminate boards.
At exposed places, eg in entrances, shops and the like, with the risk that moisture from footwear can penetrate and damage the floor, the joints can be reinforced by gluing.
Shocks in laminate boards are displaced in relation to shocks in neighboring rows according to the supplier's instructions.
The subfloor must be flat with deviations of no more than ± 2 mm of 2 m. Measurement methods etc. are shown in the section Selecting the floor .
Floating laminate floors are usually laid on an intermediate layer so that the floor can move freely. The intermediate layer may have properties that help improve walking comfort, thermal insulation and sound conditions.
If laminate boards are provided with a noise-reducing surface from the factory, no additional intermediate layers are required.
| Under Floor || Middle layer |
| Concrete or anhydrite-based subfloors and floors of tiles or tiles. || Foam, felt or laminate boards with noise-reducing surfaces on moisture barrier. For example, 0.2 mm PE film, special membrane or a special product with sound-damping and moisture-blocking properties. |
| Wood-based panels and slatted floors or existing linoleum, vinyl and the like floor coverings. with full attachment to the substrate. || Intermediate layer of foam or felt or laminate boards with noise-reducing surface. |
| Existing floor with underfloor heating. || The floor covering is removed. Existing latch and tile floors can be maintained. When laminate floors are used with floor heating, this must be done in accordance with the supplier's instructions. |
Table 2 . Minimum requirements for intermediate layers.
The floor surface must not be held, but must be able to move freely.
Large mechanical loads, eg from heavy racks, point loads, counters and the like, can hinder the floor's movement possibilities.
The distance between the floor and adjacent walls or through installations, eg pipes, must correspond to the maximum extension of the floor, however, at least 10 mm or according to the supplier's instructions.
For floors with irregular geometry and where there are columns through the floor surface, the free movement of the floor must not be obstructed. If the floor surface is divided, it should, as far as possible, be in rectangular fields, so that the expected movements in both directions are roughly the same.
Checklist for laying laminate floors
- The relative humidity in the building must be between 35 and 65% RH, depending on the season. The temperature should be between 17 and 25 ° C.
- The building must be closed and heating systems must be installed and in use
- The moisture content of concrete, lightweight concrete etc. must be in equilibrium with the relative humidity of the season. Depending on the drying conditions, this may take several months
- When laminate floors are laid on inorganic subfloors, eg concrete and the like, moisture must be blocked between the subfloor and the laminate floor, eg with a 0.2 mm PE foil, special membrane or the like. The moisture content of the concrete must not exceed 90% RH
- Laminate boards, glue and other auxiliary materials should be temperature-acclimatized for at least two days before use, e.g. when stored in the rooms where they are to be used
- Storage of the laminate boards must take place in unbroken packaging and protected against mechanical and climatic influences, eg moisture.
Bonding of laminate boards in ferries and grooves on floating floors must primarily ensure the power transfer between the laminate boards, so that a coherent floor surface is created. Thereby, the individual laminate boards work together and vertical forces can therefore be absorbed without unacceptable deflections. In addition, the glue joint can to a certain degree ensure against the penetration of water in the joints between the individual laminate boards, for example during cleaning.
A PVAc glue is usually used for bonding ferries and grooves. The glue must have sufficient strength and a water resistance equivalent to class D3 or according to the supplier's instructions.