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Introduction

Linoleum is used in dry rooms in schools, hospitals, offices, shops, homes etc. Linoleum is partly obtained as homogeneous floor coverings, where the entire thickness consists of one or more layers with the same composition, color and patterns throughout the thickness and partly as heterogeneous floor coverings with a back of foam or cork.

Linoleum is supplied as web products in 2 m width or tiles in the formats 330 x 330 mm, 500 x 500 mm or cut out of web products. It is to be expected that tiles cut out of web products have greater tolerances than factory-made tiles. The thicknesses are 2.0, 2.5, 3.2, 4.0 and 4.5 mm.

Linoleum used as floor covering must be CE-marked. CE marking of elastic floor coverings is mentioned in the section on CE marking of elastic floor coverings .

Linoleum used as floor covering in escape routes and other areas with requirements for fire and smoke development must have documentation to meet the European fire class D fl -s1 according to DS / EN 13501-1 (class G floor covering).

The walking comfort and the step sound attenuation for linoleum floors can be improved by using resilient substrates, eg cork. However, the substrate must always be approved by the linoleum supplier, and thickness must not exceed the thickness of the floor covering.

Larger residual impression must be expected in the linoleum when it is on a resilient surface. Linoleum with a high content of coarse granulated cork is called cork linoleum. It is more step-sounding and more heat-resistant but less durable than ordinary linoleum.

Linoleum can be supplied as electrostatically derived floor covering for use in rooms with requirements for personal discharge. The supplier can provide detailed information on the electrical resistance of the coatings. The linoleum surface is smooth and easy to clean. The cork linoleum has a more rough surface due to the content of coarser cork granules.

Linoleum must be protected against prolonged moisture influences, effects on alkaline substances, such as certain cleaning agents, and solvents.

For all classified types of linoleum, a 5-year wear guarantee is granted according to the floor industry rules for material guarantee , provided the supplier has approved the scope.

Properties

Linoleum, which is EN-rated, must comply with DS / EN 548 and thus comply with specific requirements for:

• length, width, straightness and flat wall
• dimensional stability during moisture changes
• thickness, flexibility and resistance to impression marks
• color fastness to artificial light
• thickness of the coating substrate

The classification of linoleum is based on the application area with the thickness as the basis for the classification, see checklist 1. The classification only distinguishes between the thicknesses 2.0 and 2.5 mm. The thickness of the linoleum can be selected up to 4.5 mm, depending on the expected usage intensity, ie to meet special user requirements. depending on scope and load.

The classes for housing, business and industry shown in checklist 1 can be further subdivided into moderate, normal, high and very high.

In addition to the properties included in the classification, there will often be a need to set requirements for other properties, depending on the actual application. These properties are included in the flooring industry's additional properties, which include for linoleum:

Resistance to office chair wheels DS / EN 425
Resistance to heavy rolling industrial wheels DS / EN 1818
Resistance to furniture legs DS / EN 424
Resistance to cigarette leaching and to burning cigarettes DS / EN 1399
Slip BGR 181
Antistatic properties DS / EN 1815
Suitability in connection with underfloor heating DIN 52612
Suitable for fire DS / EN 13501-1
S1 D fl (Class G)
Suitable as a secondary floor covering DS / EN 1081
impact sound deadening DS / EN
ISO 140-8

In addition, there may be. Requirements are made in connection with walking comfort and heat comfort.

Appearance
New and fresh linoleum can sometimes appear with a slight yellowing of the surface (yellow film or drying chamber film). This tint disappears when the linoleum is exposed to daylight, after which it will appear in its original color. Gulf film or drying chamber film must be considered when evaluating collection samples. Samples should therefore be placed in sunlight for some days before final color evaluation.

Requirements for the execution site
Time must be set aside for the linoleum to acclimate. The acclimatization is done by cutting the linoleum and placing it vertically in loosely coiled form for at least 24 hours before application. A packaged roll will not even be expected to be in equilibrium with the surroundings even after prolonged storage in the building.

During and after bonding linoleum, the temperature in the air and the subfloor must be 17-25 ° C and the air humidity 35% -75% RH.

The substrate must have the same flatness as is required of the finished floor, normally ± 2 mm on a 2 m straight. Flatness and flooring, including requirements and measurement methods, are described in Floor selection in the section Planes and floors .

If linoleum is to be laid directly on cast tires, the concrete's pore moisture (residual moisture) must not exceed 85% RH. Moisture and flooring, including requirements and measuring methods, are also described in Selecting the floor in the section Building conditions .

There must be no heavy draft or heavy sunlight during the laying of the floor. Linoleum rolls are stored standing.

Linoleum must be laid on a absorbent surface to ensure that the adhesive adheres well to the substrate. If there is insufficient suction capacity, eg on asphalt or epoxy substrates, a layer of at least 2 mm thick putty must be applied.

Laying and use

Conditions related to installation and use
Linoleum shrinks and expands in connection with moisture absorption and humidification, eg by moisture from adhesion or by changes in humidity. It is therefore to be expected that cutting for adjacent structures or joints in impacted joints during dry periods may open slightly. Close cutting for vertical surfaces is not possible, therefore it will be necessary to mount strips if a visible joint is not desired along the floor.

Linoleum shrinks in the longitudinal direction of the paths and expands across the path direction. Proper friction cutting in web joints is therefore very important, since the glue joint in the first part of the glue hardening phase will not be able to hold the coating to the substrate if compression occurs in the joint. The supplier's instructions on the execution of joints and cuts must be followed.

Linoleum can either be laid with butt joints, which is often used for pattern laying, for example, or by sealing the joints with a melting wire, which is melted in the jointed joint between the webs.

Single-colored coatings are demanding for use because they place great demands on cleaning to maintain the same visual impression as for marbled linoleum coatings. In addition, plate joints in the substrate and sealing with melting wire will appear more visible than with marbled linoleum coatings.

Trådfugning
Wire joining with melting wire must not be done until the glue is hardened. After the jointing, the thread must be cut off at a level with the surface of the webs so that cleaning water and dirt do not collect in and around the joint. The supplier's instructions on wire joining must be followed.

Electrostatic Derivative Floors
Linoleum is suitable as a derivative floor covering and can be used in rooms where a discharge of electrical charges is needed.

Derivative linoleum has a special composition and is placed in conductive glue. In addition, the floor must further be connected to ground through copper wire according to the supplier's instructions. It must be agreed where the flooring contractor must guide the copper wire up the wall.

Performing electrostatic derivative linoleum floors must be done in consultation with the coating supplier. Grounding must be done by an authorized electrician.

Static derivative and static conductive floor coverings - concepts, requirements etc. - are described in more detail in Selecting the floor in the section Electrostatic charging .

Cleaning
The future users must be informed about proper cleaning, as improper cleaning can cause damage to the surface and annoying odor during floor washing. The supplier's instructions on cleaning and maintenance of linoleum floors must be handed over to the user.

For daily cleaning use dry or moisture mopping or vacuuming. The floor is washed as needed.

In areas where wet cleaning is required to a greater extent, sheet joints should be sealed (wire jointed) with a melting wire.

Cleaning of linoleum floors is discussed in the section Cleaning of elastic floor coverings .

Building cleaning - cleaning before commissioning
Linoleum is factory-treated with a protective surface treatment that protects the floor during the construction period, facilitates future cleaning and minimizes cleaning costs. The surface treatment is an integral part of the coating and must therefore only be removed if there are conditions that make it necessary.

If the coating has been soiled / scratched during the construction period, it must be cleaned with a suitable scrubbing unit with added cleaning agent. Then wash the coating with a washing / care agent. The supplier's instructions must be followed.

Checklists 1 and 2

Properties included in the EN classification of linoleum floors.

Checklist 1. Classification of linoleum for use in housing, business and industry respectively is based on the thickness. The classes can be further subdivided into moderate, normal, high (and very high). Other properties comply with the marked values for EN-classified products. The values given are minimum values.

Characteristic comments
Total Thickness 2.0 mm
residential
2.0-2.5 mm
profession
2.0-2.5 mm
Industry
DS / EN 428. A thick wear layer is considered better than a thin one. The mentioned thicknesses indicate the classification requirements for housing, business and light industry, respectively. Larger thicknesses than those stated, eg 3.2 or 4 mm, are usually used in commercial and industrial buildings.
Residual impression on static load
≤ 3.2 mm thickness
≥ 4.0 mm thickness

15 0.15 mm
20 0.20 mm

10 0.10 mm
15 0.15 mm
DS / EN 433.
Color fastness to artificial light At least 6 DS / EN ISO 105-B02: Method 3
The scale is between 0 and 8.
flexibility No cracks DS / EN 435. A dome with a diameter of 30-60 mm is used depending on the linoleum thickness.
Stability to moisture 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% DE / EN 669.

Checklist 2. Supplementary properties that may be required to set requirements, for example due to special effects on the floor during the actual use.

Characteristic comments
Resistance to office chair wheels no Yes DS / EN 425
Resistance to heavy rolling industrial wheels no Yes DS / EN 1818.
The size of the load should be included in the assessment.
Large, light running wheels give the least load on the floor.
Resistance to furniture legs no Yes DS / EN 424
Resistance to cigarette leaching and to burning cigarettes no Yes DS / EN 1399.
Detailed information is available from the supplier.
Slip no Yes

BGR 181.
Value group R9-R13.

Antistatic properties no Yes DS / EN 1815
Suitability in connection with underfloor heating no Yes DIN 52612.
Detailed information is available from the supplier.
Suitable for fire no Yes

DS / EN 13501-1.
D fl -s1 (class G)

Suitable as a secondary floor covering no Yes DS / EN 1081
Trinlydforbedring no Yes DS / EN ISO 140-8.
Detailed information is available from the supplier.