Introduction

Textiles are originally a designation for products made by a weaving or knitting process. Textile flooring is currently produced mainly by tufting . They can be made of several different types of material, eg wool and nylon, and in different types. In everyday speech, textile floorings are often called carpets.

Textiles have a number of good properties, which include: makes them suitable for flooring. To achieve the desired properties, textile floor coverings can be manufactured in different ways and can be with or without coating on the back. Various auxiliary materials can also be added during the manufacture, eg dyes and substances that improve the carpet's fire-technical and electrostatic properties.

This chapter contains:

  • Introduction
  • CE marking of textile floor coverings
  • Manufacture of textile floor coverings
  • Choice of textile floor coverings
  • Use Classes
  • The importance of colors and patterns to the appearance of the carpets
  • Requirements for the execution site
  • Testing and classification
  • Overview of classified, textile floor coverings
  • Appendix - Basis of classification

This section deals with textile floor coverings as defined in ISO 2424. The classification of textile floor coverings is based on DS / EN 1307 for pile carpets and prEN 15114 for carpets without pile. See next section .

As carpets for private homes fall outside the scope of GSO, only classification of carpets into the contract market is discussed below. It is described inter alia what considerations should be made before deciding on the use of textile flooring. Later in this section we describe the technical requirements that must be documented in order to obtain a coating occupied as GSOclassified textile flooring.

CE label

Textile flooring must be CE marked. The harmonized standard DS / EN 14041, which underlies the CE marking, applies to production and use in Europe.

It is the manufacturer or the dealer who markets the product, which is responsible for the CE marking.

The properties covered by the standard can be found in Annex ZA in DS / EN 14041 + AC: 2005:

  • Response to fire
  • Content of pentachlorophenol (PCP)
  • Release of formaldehyde
  • water resistance
  • Slip
  • Antistatic properties
  • Thermal Conductivity
  • Durability of reaction to fire

CE marking is not a quality mark, but a harmonized standard that acts as the flooring travel pass within the European community.

The CE mark may be printed on the packaging of the roller or a label adhered to the packaging.

DS / EN 14041: 2005
NBNB CPD-zzz
(certificate number certificate)
Manufacturer's name
Description


Figure 1.
Example of CE marking of textile floor coverings. The example applies to textile flooring under system 1 according to the standard annex ZA.

06
NBNB CPD-zzz

(certificate number certificate)
Manufacturer's name
Description

DS / EN 14041: 2005
DS / EN 1307


Figure 2. Example of CE marking which will appear from the technical data sheet for a textile floor covering.

Manufacture of textile floor coverings

Textile flooring is produced by either tufting or weaving, where tufting is the most widely used manufacturing method. In the manufacture of tufted carpets, the starting point is a carrier tissue. In a tufting machine, pile yarn is sewn into the carrier fabric.

This produces either loops or cut luv.

To reinforce the pile yarn anchoring in the carrier fabric, carpets are provided with glue pre-coating, whereupon a backing is again laid, which can either be a synthetic tissue or felt layer, jute or latex. Latex back pages can be more or less compact.

In the manufacture of woven carpets, the process is accomplished by interweaving the pile yarn with longitudinal yarns (called warp yarns) and cross yarns (called weft yarns).

The fibers used as pile yarns / wear layers may be wool, polyamide (nylon), polyester, acrylic or polypropylene. Often the fibers are mixed to exploit the properties of the various fibers.

Construction of tufted carpet

Woven carpet construction

Wearing surface
1. Pile yarns

Bottom
2. Binding chain
3. Push
4. Filling chain

Technical information - in general
Textile floor coverings are available in various variants, each of which is available in many colors and patterns. Textile floor coverings are primarily produced as web products, but are also available as carpet tiles.

Textile flooring has a surface structure that allows it to pick up and retain dust particles until it is cleaned, eg by vacuuming. Furthermore, the structure means that carpets have good sound-damping properties.

Resistance to soiling is dependent on the type of carpet and the materials used.

Choice of textile floor coverings
A decision on which carpet should be used in a specific situation should be based on an assessment of the carpet's properties. When choosing carpet coverings, at least account should be taken of:

  • traffic intensity
  • use of wheels with wheels
  • regulatory requirements for fire characteristics
  • electrostatic charge
  • maintenance
  • color and pattern
  • foreseen cleaning, including the suitability of the subfloor for the intended cleaning method.

Classification

There are two harmonized European standards for documenting carpet usage characteristics:

  • DS / EN 1307, used for pile carpets (eg tufted and woven)
  • prEN 15114, used for blankets without pile (eg flat woven carpets)

Both standards classify contract rugs in 3 classes according to the traffic intensity:

Use Classes
Powerful use Normal use Moderate use
33 32 31


Class 33 - Powerful use
More than 40,000
passenger passages per person week

Class 32 - Normal use
10,000 - 40,000
passenger passages per person week

Class 31 - Moderate use
less than 10,000
passenger passages per person week
Departure halls and terminals
Cinemas and theaters
shops
Child and youth institutions
cafeterias
Principal Areas
Elevaterer
flight
Hotel Foyers
entrances
offices
schools
Restaurants
Stairs, hallways, trains and buses
libraries
Cinemas and theaters
shops
Child and youth institutions
Cafeterias and canteens
Computer rooms
flight
offices
Banks
Nursing home
Restaurants
banquet
schools
Trains and buses
archives
shops
Hotel Rooms
Churches
Dorm rooms
meeting Rooms
Living room
Restaurants
banquet


Table 2. Indicative correlation between usage classes and room types.

When choosing carpet coatings, it should be considered whether other properties not included in the classification are of importance and are crucial for the choice of carpet coating. The following should be considered:

  • trinlyddæmpning
  • acoustic absorption coefficient
  • suitability for use in rooms with sensitive electronic equipment
  • suitability for areas where trolleys are used
  • thermal resistance
  • suitability for use in rooms with underfloor heating
  • vapor diffusion resistance.

When designing, it must be ensured that the combination of subfloor, glue and carpet coating is suitable for influences that are expected to occur during use, eg:

  • that the expected cleaning machines, means and methods are usable,
  • that color and pattern selection are suitable in relation to the dirt and stain effects that must be foreseen
  • that the subfloor is sufficiently conductive.

The importance of colors and patterns to the appearance of the carpets
Colors and patterns are crucial to the perception of the carpet's appearance and cleaning, for example, contamination is perceived to be worse on a light, solid color carpet than on a patterned carpet with dark colors.

Accordingly, in order to maintain a neat visual appearance of the carpet's appearance, the bright, solid-colored carpet must be cleaned more frequently than the dark, patterned carpet. In addition, the bright, solid-colored carpet will reach a change of appearance more quickly, which means that the carpet must be replaced.

Bright colors versus solid-colored carpets
Figure 3 and Table 3 illustrate that on carpets in bright, delicate colors, soiling is perceived much worse than on carpets in dark colors - however, it should be noted that light dirt, eg a white thread, will appear more clearly in dark colors.

A light-colored, solid color carpet therefore requires cleaning more often to maintain the same impression of the cleaning standard.

Patterned and solid-colored carpets

Colour brightness * fouling Comment
Very dark 20 - 30 10 Small color change
Dark 30 - 40 > 5
Between dark 40 - 50 15 The carpet becomes darker when soiled
Medium 50 - 60 35
Light 60 - 70 65
Very light / white 70 - 80 100


Table 3.
The perception of soiling depending on the color of the carpet. In the same soiling, carpets are perceived in very bright colors, eg white, much more dirty than carpets in dark colors. Soiling 100 is the maximum perception of soiling (100%), the others are percentages thereof.
* brightness or value cf. CIELAB unit for description of colors.

Pattern / design Perception of soiling
No pattern
Plain
100
Dots, laceration 85
Small, geometric pattern 70
Large, arbitrary, dominant pattern 50

Table 4. The perception of soiling depending on the pattern of the carpet. The more dominant the pattern, the less stains and dirt will appear visibly. Soiling 100 is the maximum perception of soiling (100%), the other percentages thereof.

Table 4 illustrates that the same color ratio applies to patterns. The more dominant the pattern, the less stains and dirt will be perceived.

The importance of patterns and colors for the useful life
If a carpet is not adequately cleaned, it will have an unacceptable appearance. This will go faster for bright, solid-colored carpets than for dark, patterned carpets. As a rule of thumb, the useful life of the carpet will be reduced by the factors shown in Table 5 and Table 6.

Colour brightness * Usage factor color
Very dark 20 - 30 0.9
Dark 30 - 40 1.0
Between dark 40 - 50 0.9
Medium 50 - 60 0.8
Light 60 - 70 0.7
Very light / white 70 - 80 0.6


Table 5.
If the cleaning frequency is too low, the service life of the carpet can be reduced by the mentioned usage factors.
* brightness or value cf. CIELAB unit for description of colors.

pattern Size Working time factor pattern
No pattern
Plain
0.8
Dots, laceration 0.95
Small, geometric pattern 1.05
Large, arbitrary, dominant pattern 1.20


Table 6.
If the cleaning frequency is too low, the service life of the carpet can be reduced by up to the mentioned usage factors.

The application is illustrated by the following example:

Example
A solid color carpet is placed on a place where there is heavy traffic. It has an expected useful life of 6 years.

If the carpet is bright (brightness = 65, see table 5), the useful life will be reduced by a factor of 0.7.

If it is also solid color (see Table 6), the useful life will be further reduced by a factor of 0.8.

Ie - If both conditions are met, the service life is reduced to 6 x 0.7 x 0.8 = approx. 3 years if not frequently and heavily cleaned.

If the carpet is chosen instead of a dark color and with a large, dominant pattern, the useful life will be 6 years x 1.0 (dark carpet) x 1.20 (large random pattern) = approx. 7 years.

There is thus the possibility of increasing the expected useful life by choosing a darker and / or a more patterned carpet.

Execution, testing and classification requirements

Time must be set aside for carpet and possibly. glue can be acclimated. The materials must therefore be placed in the room one day before laying and cutting.

If the carpet is to be glued to the subfloor, the temperature in the air and the subfloor must be 17 - 25ºC and the air humidity 35 - 75% RH. See the section - Floor adhesive .

The subfloor must have the same flatness as is required of the finished floor, normally ± 3 mm on a 2 m straight. About flatness: See the section - Selecting the floor .

If the carpet is to be glued directly onto cast tires, the concrete's pore moisture (residual moisture) must not exceed 90% RH. About moisture: See section - Selecting the floor .

There must be no heavy draft or heavy sunlight when the carpet is laid.

Conditions related to installation and use

Carpet lanes must always be in the same direction in the room and lanes must be used from the same production. It is important that the tracks are laid out in batch number order.

The tracks are generally laid with the joints perpendicular to the most light-emitting window wall.

For patterned carpets, it is important that they be checked for pattern matching before laying.

Joints should as far as possible be avoided at the most exposed places, eg at doorways, entrance areas, and under office chairs with wheels.

Joints must be made by trimming edges and with pattern matching with patterned carpets. The supplier's instructions on the execution of joints and cuts must be followed.

Do not place furniture, furniture etc. on the carpet before the glue has hardened.

For carpet laying on staircases, rails should always be completed at step edges.

Cleaning

The future users must be informed about proper cleaning, as improper cleaning can cause damage to the carpet. For daily cleaning, vacuuming is used.

The supplier's instructions on cleaning must be followed.

Cover

To prevent damage to the carpet, the finished floor should be covered with materials that protect against the subsequent load until commissioning takes place.

Corridors and other stressed or exposed areas should be covered with hard wood panels which are taped into the joints.

About covering floors: See section - Accessories and special materials .

Testing and classification

In order to obtain classification of the flooring industry, there must be evidence that the properties of the carpet have been tested in an institute or laboratory approved by the ECA (European Carpet Association).

Registration and classification are subject to the floor industry rules for classification of textile floor coverings.

To obtain classification of the flooring industry, in addition to the properties to be fulfilled according to DS / EN 1307 or prEN 15114, documentation is required for:

Fire-resistant MK approval

Properties and requirements for pile carpets, classified according to DS / EN 1307, are shown in Tables 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3

Properties and requirements for blankets without pile, classified according to prEN 15114, are shown in Tables 8.1, 8.2 and 8.3

classification Charts

Blankets with pile, classified according to DS / EN 1307: 2005

Characteristic Requirements Test Method
Light fastness Generally ≥ 5
Pastel colors ≥ 4
ISO 105-B02
rubbing fastness Dry ≥ 3 - 4
Wet ≥ 3
ISO 105-X12
Wateriness, color change Solid color ≥ 3 - 4
Pattern ≥ 4
ISO 105-E01
Wateriness, contagion ≥ 2 - 3 (worst result on multi-fiber) ISO 105-E01
Fiber retention (blankets with less than 80% wool)
- Onion rugs
- Velor rugs
Less solitary than on reference photos
Mass Loss ≤ 25%
DS / EN 1963, test C
Rev / EN 1963, test A
Color change:
Caused by spilled water
Caused by spilled water and
subsequent soiling
≥ 4
≥ 3
DS / EN 1307: 2005, Annex F

Table 7.1. Basic requirements that all carpets must meet.


Characteristic Class 33
Powerful use
Class 32
Normal use
Class 31
Moderate use
Test Method
Working Class 33 32 31 DS / EN 1307, 4.2
Suitability in connection with
office chair wheels
2.4
No delamination
2.4
No delamination
No claim DS / EN 985
Border tension Max. 1 out of 4 samples
visibly damaged
No claim No claim DS / EN 1814
person Charge ≤ 2 kV ≤ 2 kV ≤ 2 kV ISO 6356
Fire characteristics D fl -s1
(class G)
MK Approved
D fl -s1
(class G)
MK Approved
D fl -s1
(class G)
MK Approved
DS / EN 13501

Table 7.2. Additional requirements that must be met by carpets that are to be classified.

Characteristic Requirements Test Method
Lots per. unit area ≥ 3.5 kg / m² for loosely laid carpet tiles
≥ 0.875 kg for the individual loose tile
≥ 2.5 kg / m² for fixed carpet tiles
≥ 0.625 kg for some fixed tiles
ISO 8543
dimensions ± 0.3% on nominal dimensions however
± 0.2% within the same batch
DS / EN 994
Retvinkelthed ± 0.15% in both directions DS / EN 994

Dimensional stability:
Loosely laid and fixed carpet tiles
Permanently glued
≤ 0.2% shrinkage and expansion in both directions
≤ 0.4% shrinkage in both directions
≤ 0.2% extension in both directions
DS / EN 986
curvature ≤ 2 mm deviation from flat surface DS / EN 986
Border tension No damage DS / EN

Table 7.3. Further requirements that must be met by carpet tiles that are to be classified.

Note: Loosely laid carpet tiles are defined as tiles that can be easily removed by hand.
Permanently adhered carpet tiles are defined as tiles for adhesion according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Fixed carpet tiles are defined as carpet tiles that can be removed and re-applied according to the manufacturer's instructions.

Blankets without pile, classified according to prEN 15114


Characteristic Requirements Test Method
Light fastness Generally ≥ 5
Pastel colors ≥ 4
ISO 105-B02
rubbing fastness Dry ≥ 3 - 4
Wet ≥ 3
ISO 105-X12
Wateriness, color change Solid color ≥ 3 - 4
Pattern ≥ 4
ISO 105-E01
Wateriness, contagion ≥ 2 - 3 (worst result on multi-fiber) ISO 105-E01
pilling ≥ 2.5 DS / EN 1963 - Test D
Color change:
Caused by spilled water
Caused by spilled water and
subsequent soiling
≥ 4
≥ 3
DS / EN 15115 and
DS / EN 15114, Annex C
dimensional stability ≤ 1.2% shrinkage in both directions
≤ 0.5% extension in both directions
ISO 25

Table 8.1. Basic requirements that all carpets must meet.

recreate Class 33
Powerful use
Class 32
Normal use
Class 31
Moderate use
Test Method
Working Class 33 32 31 prEN 15114
Suitability in connection with
office chair wheels
2.4
No delamination
2.4
No delamination
No claim DS / EN 985
Border tension Max. 1 out of 4 samples
visibly damaged
No claim No claim S / EN 1814
person Charge ≤ 2 kV ≤ 2 kV ≤ 2 kV ISO 6356
Fire characteristics D fl -s1
(class G)
MK Approved
D fl -s1
(class G)
MK Approved
D fl -s1
(class G)
MK Approved
DS / EN 13501-1

Table 8.2. Additional requirements that must be met by carpets that are to be classified.

Characteristic Requirements Test Method
Lots per. unit area ≥ 3.5 kg / m² for loosely laid carpet tiles
≥ 0.875 kg for the individual loose tile
≥ 2.5 kg / m² for fixed carpet tiles
≥ 0.625 kg for some fixed tiles
ISO 8543
dimensions ± 0.3% on nominal dimensions however
± 0.2% within the same batch
DS / EN 994
Retvinkelthed ± 0.15% in both directions DS / EN 994
Dimensional stability:
Loosely laid and fixed carpet tiles
Permanently glued
≤ 0.2% shrinkage and expansion in both directions
≤ 0.4% shrinkage in both directions
≤ 0.2% extension in both directions
DS / EN 986
curvature ≤ 2 mm deviation from flat surface DS / EN 986
Border tension No damage DS / EN 181

Table 8.3. Further requirements that must be met by carpet tiles that are to be classified.

Note: Loosely laid carpet tiles are defined as tiles that can be easily removed by hand.
Permanently adhered carpet tiles are defined as tiles for adhesion according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Fixed carpet tiles are defined as carpet tiles that can be removed and re-applied according to the manufacturer's instructions.

Basis for classification

Use Classes

The classification standards DS / EN 1307 and prEN 15114 classify carpets for the contract market in the following classes:

Class 33: Powerful use
Corresponding to the previous group I (Intense traffic)

Class 32: Normal use
Corresponding to the previous group K (Heavy traffic)

Class 31: Moderate use
Corresponding to the previous group M (Moderate traffic)

Subsequently, the test methods used are briefly discussed. As can be seen from Tables 7.1 - 7.3 and 8.1 - 8.3, most of the test methods are used for both pile carpets and blankets. However, some tests are only used for one of the two carpet types.

Change of appearance

Carpets are tested according to ISO / TR 10361. There is freedom of choice between the two different methods "Vettermann" or "Hexapod".

For both methods, the carpet sample is placed inside a rotating drum. A steel ball with rubber or plastic caps is placed inside the drum and exerts wear on the carpet.

Both short-term and long-term tests are performed. The test items are evaluated according to DS / EN 1471.

Suitability for use with office chairs with wheels

Carpets must be tested according to DS / EN 985, which simulates long-term effects of an office chair with wheels. Three wheels placed in a circle rotate about an axis in the center of the circle. The wheels are loaded with 90 kg.

The test piece is evaluated after 5000 and 25000 test cycles, respectively.

Border tension

After DS / EN 1814 the carpet must be placed inside a drum. During testing, the drum and a metal ball with 6 rubber tips rotate inside.

The test pieces are provided with an oblique cut in longitudinal direction so that the edges are affected by the metal ball.

Carpet tiles are tested with joints between the original edges. At the test, the joints are affected by the metal ball.

After the test, the joints are evaluated according to Annex D in DS / EN 1307.

Light fastness

When testing according to ISO 105-B02, the color change is determined as a result of the light effect during indoor use. The carpet sample is illuminated together with 8 reference substances.

The carpet sample is evaluated by comparison with the reference substances. The result is given as a character between 1 and 8, where 8 is best.

rubbing fastness

Testing is performed according to ISO 105-X12, where color contamination is determined on a white cotton piece in both dry and wet conditions. The test is performed in both the production direction and perpendicular to it.

The contamination is determined using a gray scale (ISO 105-A03). The result is given as a grade between 1 and 5, with 5 being the best.

water fastness

Testing is performed according to ISO 105-E01, where color change and contamination due to water impact are determined. A piece of multifibre fabric is placed on top of the carpet sample and the "sandwich" is soaked with water. After 4 hours in this condition, dry and condition.

After conditioning, the carpet sample is compared to the original sample and the color change is determined using a gray scale (ISO 105-A02).

Likewise, contamination on multi-fiber is determined using a gray scale (ISO 105-A03).

The result is given as a grade between 1 and 5, with 5 being the best.

fiber Retention

On pile carpets, testing of fiber retention is performed according to DS / EN 1963 using the Lisson machine, where a rotating wheel with attached rubber soles exerts a wear effect on the carpet.

For bulb blankets, test C is used, where the solder unit of the affected sample is compared with a reference photo.

For velor rugs, test A is used, where the mass loss upon impact is determined.

pilling

On non-pile carpets, testing of pilling tendency is performed according to DS / EN 1963 test using the Lisson machine, where a rotating wheel with attached rubber soles exerts a wear effect on the carpet.

Test D is used for the test, where the affected tendency of the affected sample is compared with a reference scale (photo scale).

dimensional stability

The dimensional stability of track products is tested according to ISO 2551, while the dimensional stability of carpet tiles is tested according to DS / EN 986.

In both methods, the carpet is exposed to varying conditions in terms of temperature and humidity. The blanket is thus exposed to both 60 ° C and immersion in water.

The dimensional changes under these extreme conditions are determined.

Color change caused by spilled water

Testing is performed according to DS / EN 1307 Annex F or DS / EN 15115, where a sample of the carpet is applied to water.

After the carpet is dried, a possible color difference between the treated and non-treated area is evaluated with a gray scale (DS / EN 20105-A02).

Color change caused by spilled water and subsequent soiling

Testing is performed according to Annex F in DS / EN 1307, or Annex C in prEN 15114 and prEN 15115, where a sample of the carpet is applied to water. After drying, apply dirt and vacuum the area.

Subsequently, a possible color difference between the treated and non-treated area is evaluated with a gray scale (DS / EN 20105-A02).

Electrostatic person charging

Testing is performed according to ISO 6356, which determines the electrostatic charge when a person with standardized footwear goes on a floor covering.

When the test result at 25% RH is less than 2 kV, few people will experience shock genes.

GSO-classified carpets are permanently anti-static, ie the electrostatic properties are controlled by conductive permanent antistatic fibers.

Fire characteristics

Testing of carpet fire properties is done according to DS / EN ISO 9239-1 and classified according to DS / EN 13501-1.

Carpets used in escape routes and other areas with requirements for fire and smoke development must in Denmark have documentation to at least meet the European fire brigade Dfl-s1 (class G floor covering).

D fl = class of flame spread.

s1 = class for smoke development.