All information on this page is copied material from Gulvfakta, which is a technical reference material, Source: Gulvfakta

Laminate flooring refers to floors which are mainly made up of 3 layers: a surface of thin fiber materials, a core material of a wood-based board and a backing of paper or veneer. Alternatively, see our selection of e.g. wooden floors , linoleum floors or vinyl floors . General conditions
CE marking
Properties and classification
Laying methods Checklist for laying laminate floors

All information on this page is copied material from Gulvfakta, which is a technical reference material, Source: Gulvfakta General conditions
Laminate floors are made up of 3 layers:
Surface of thin fiber materials impregnated with different types of resin. During pressing at high pressure and heat, the resin hardens into different types of laminate called HPL (high pressure laminate), CPL (continuous laminate). HPL and CPL are glued to a core material, which is usually a wood-based board. Alternatively, the resin-impregnated layers can be pressed directly onto the core material, as DPL (direct pressed laminate).
The core is usually a wood-based board, e.g. chipboard, HDF or MDF board.
"Counter-finishing"/balancing the back side, e.g. with HPL, CPL-impregnated paper or veneer.

Fig 1. Laminate boards

Laminate floors are used in homes, offices, shops and the like. room. The possibilities of use appear in the Properties and classification section
• Laminate floors are supplied as boards with tongue and groove on all sides or with a tongue and groove locking system (click system), which eliminates the need for tongue and groove gluing.
• Laminate boards are available in thicknesses from 6 - 12 mm and are laid as a floating floor.
• Laminate floors are supplied with a smooth or embossed surface and with different surface colors and patterns, including imitations of wood.

At Gulvlager, we carry a wide selection of laminate floors for every purpose. We have popular brands such as BerryAlloc, KT and Kronotex. Take e.g. a closer look at BerryAlloc Chateau herringbone charm Light Natural , KT Advanced Oak Summer Plank or Kronotex laminate flooring Oak Millenium .

General conditions
The laminate surface is strong and easy to clean and requires no surface treatment. Laminate floors are usually not suitable for rooms exposed to water. If laminate floors are to be used in connection with underfloor heating, this must be done in accordance with the supplier's instructions. If office chairs with wheels are used on laminate floors, the wheel type must be as specified in DS/EN 425:2002, i.e. with a soft tread. If laminate floors are to be used as flooring in escape routes and other areas with requirements for fire and smoke development, they must have documentation to meet the European fire class Dfl-s1 in accordance with DS/EN 13501-1 (class G flooring). For laminate floors, the Flooring Industry's material guarantee can be provided under the conditions described on the Flooring Industry's website , including that the supplier has approved the area of use.

Sound ratio
Laminate floors usually do not contribute to the improvement of airborne sound insulation in a room. The airborne sound insulation is primarily determined by the construction of the deck and by the lateral transmission between the rooms. Laminate floors, on the other hand, have an impact on the footstep sound level in surrounding rooms and on the drum sound in the room. The step and drum sound level from laminate floors is improved if the floor is laid on an intermediate layer of foam, foam plastic or similar. In addition, laminate boards are available that are supplied from the factory with a noise-absorbing underlay, which increases walking comfort and significantly lowers the sound level of steps and drums. CE marking

Laminate floors must be CE marked. The harmonized standard DS/EN 14041, which is the basis for the CE marking, applies to production and use in Europe. It is the manufacturer or the dealer who imports the laminate floors that is responsible for the CE marking.

The required properties appear from annex ZA in DS/EN 14041:
• Reaction in case of fire
• Pentachlorophenol (PCP) content
• Release of formaldehyde
• Water tightness
• Smoothness
• Antistatic properties
• Thermal conductivity
• Durability of response to fire
In addition to the standard, national requirements may have been drawn up to the extent necessary to comply with building legislation.

CE marking is not a quality mark, but a harmonized standard sheet that acts as the laminate floor's passport within the European Community.

Fig. 2. Example of how the CE marking can be used in a product specification. Properties and classification
Laminate floors, which are EN-classified according to DS/EN 13329, must be able to meet specific requirements for a number of properties.
The properties are divided into general requirements that all products must meet, e.g. tolerances for thickness, swelling, length, width and flatness of boards.

The classification takes place according to:
• Wear resistance.
• Impact strength.
• Resistance to indentation marks.
• Color fastness to artificial light.
• Resistance to stains and burn marks from cigarettes.
• The effect of furniture legs and office chair wheels.
The classification takes place according to the residential and business areas of application, each of which is divided into three classes, namely moderate, normal and high.

In addition to the properties included in the classification, there will often be a need to set requirements for other properties depending on the current application. These properties are part of GSO's supplementary properties, which for laminate floors include:

Table 1. Supplementary characteristics. Laying methods
Laminate floors are usually laid as a floating floor that can move freely in relation to the load-bearing subfloor. The floor surface is made continuous by gluing together in tongue and groove or by joining with a click system, a locking tongue and groove system, which provides a strong joint of the laminate boards without the use of glue. The Klik system can be treated from the factory to prevent moisture from penetrating the joints and thus damaging the laminate boards. In exposed places, e.g. in entrances, shops and the like, where there is a risk that moisture from footwear can penetrate and damage the floor, the joints can be reinforced by gluing together. Joints in laminate boards are shifted in relation to joints in neighboring rows according to the supplier's instructions.

The subfloor must be level with deviations of no more than ± 2 mm in 2 m. Measuring methods etc. can be found in the section Choosing the floor. Floating laminate floors are usually laid on an intermediate layer so that the floor can move freely. The middle layer can have properties that contribute to improving walking comfort, thermal insulation and acoustic conditions. If laminate boards are provided with a noise-absorbing underlay from the factory, no additional intermediate layer is required.

Table 2. Minimum requirements for intermediate layers.

The floor surface must not be fixed, but must be able to move freely. Large mechanical loads, e.g. from heavy racks, point loads, counters and the like, can hinder the floor's ability to move. The distance between the floor and adjacent walls or continuous installations, e.g. pipes, must correspond to the floor's maximum expansion, however at least 10 mm or according to the supplier's instructions. In the case of floors with irregular geometry and where there are columns through the floor surface, the free movement of the floor must not be obstructed. If the floor surface is divided, it should be done as far as possible in rectangular fields, so that the expected movements in both directions are roughly the same. Checklist for laying laminate floors

The relative humidity in the building must be between 35 and 65% RH, depending on the season. The temperature must be between 17 and 25°C.
The building must be closed and the heating system must be installed and in use. The moisture content of concrete, lightweight concrete, etc. must be in equilibrium with the relative humidity normal for the season. Depending on the drying conditions, this may take several months. When laminate flooring is laid on inorganic subfloors, e.g. concrete and the like, a moisture barrier must be provided between the subfloor and the laminate floor, e.g. with a 0.2 mm PE foil, special membrane or the like. The moisture content of the concrete must not exceed 90% RH
Laminate boards, glue and other auxiliary materials should be temperature-acclimated for at least two days before use, e.g. when stored in the rooms where they are to be used
The laminate boards must be stored in unbroken packaging and protected against mechanical and climatic influences, e.g. moisture. Glue
Gluing tongue-and-groove laminate boards for floating floors must primarily ensure the transfer of force between the laminate boards, so that a coherent floor surface is created. Thereby, the individual laminate boards work together and vertical forces can therefore be absorbed without unacceptable deflections. In addition, the glue joint can protect to some extent against the penetration of water into the joints between the individual laminate boards, e.g. during cleaning. A PVAc glue is normally used for gluing tongue and groove joints. The glue must have sufficient strength and a water resistance corresponding to class D3 or according to the supplier's instructions.